Présentation de Florence Lacoste, Responsable Analyse & Expertise de l’ITERG, AOCS-CCOA Joint Symposium on Functional Lipids, Shanghai, 19-20 novembre 2014
The presence of contaminants in vegetable and animal oils and fats may have many different origins. Environment may induce contamination of crops with metals, dioxins & polychlorobiphenyls from industrial wastes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or mineral oil from vehicle exhausts. Crop protection implements chemicals like insecticides, fungicides or herbicides.
Mineral oil may also be used to protect grains. Production process may lead to the formation of degradation products like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or 3-MCPD esters and glycidol esters.
Lubricant leak during the process may contaminate the oil and contact with plastic material may lead to plasticizer migration such as phthalates. Transport and storage may be sources of contamination with mineral oil and chemicals from previous cargoes. Phthalates may also contaminate the oil due to contact with plastic material used during transport & storage.
Although the potential toxicity of most of these contaminants is real, poisoning risks are rather limited due to the efficient elimination during oil-refining steps, careful conditioning, choice of efficient packaging and industrial quality control management.
However the research of contaminants is part of multiple controls conducted by fat and oil industry to verify the conformity of products placed on the market in relation to regulations such as the European commission regulation EC no 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for some contaminants in food as lead, some mycotoxins, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, benzo[a]pyrene.
In the absence of regulation, the detection of contaminants must be addressed in partnership with authorities according to the toxicity of molecules. The controls are not confined to environmental contaminants. They also include compounds that can be formed during the production process of vegetable oils such as esters of 3-monochloropropanediol.
This presentation focuses more particularly on heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and phthalates. Aspects such as methods for analysis, limits fixed by EC regulation and occurrence in vegetable oils are discussed.
« Dosage des métaux toxiques dans les corps gras : cadmium, plomb, étain, arsenic et chrome (méthodes et applications) », F. Lacoste, A. Castera, J. Lespagne, Rev. Franç. Corps Gras, 1993, 40 (1/2), 19-31
« The determination of cadmium in oils and fats by direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry », F. Lacoste, G. Van Dalen, P. Dysseler, Pure & Appl. Chem., 1999, 71 (2), 361-368
« Undesirable compounds in oils and fats : analysis and regulation », F. Lacoste, R. Raoux, Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 2003, 10, 2, 93-98
« Problématiques des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les corps gras », F. Lacoste, R. Raoux, D. Dubois, B. Soulet, Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 10, 4, 287-295 (2003)
« Contrôle de la sécurité sanitaire de l’huile d’olive vierge », F. Lacoste, B. Soulet, J.N. Arnaud, E. Brenne, H. Lechat, Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 2004, 11, 3, 210-216
« Contrôle des composés indésirables dans les huiles végétales et mise en place d’observatoires », F. Lacoste, H. Lechat, X. Pagès, J.N. Arnaud, E. Brenne, B. Soulet, B. Camisuli, C. Birot, S. Fazeuilh, J. Escabasse, Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 2005, 12, 5-6, 372-377
« Détection de contaminants dans les huiles végétales : bilan à fin 2009 », F. Lacoste, F. Joffre, J.L. Coustille, O. Morin, B. Soulet, E. Brenne, H. Griffon, Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 2010, 17, 2, 75-80