Présentation orale de Charlotte Rey, Equipe Nutrition Métabolisme & Santé de l’ITERG, lors de la 10ème Journée de Nutrition & Neurosciences, organisée le 27 mars 2017 par NutritNeuro au Centre Génomique Fonctionelle de Bordeaux
Neuroinflammation is the protective response against diverse insults to control and promote tissue repair. Several factors are implicated in this active defense reaction but dysfunction of this mechanism can cause multiple damages in the brain. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) derived from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as resolvins (Rv), and n-6 PUFA-derived lipid mediators emerge as key regulators in physiologic pathways. Accumulated evidence show the involvement of SPM in the protective role assigned to their precursors against inflammation.
The aim of the project is to determine the implication of these oxidized lipids mediators called oxylipins in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. We first evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of DHA-derived RvD1 in microglia cells in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of cerebral treatment with RvD1 and it precursor on neuroinflammation in mice.
We found that RvD1 decrease inflammation in microglial culture through miRNA dependent mechanism for RvD1 by ALX/fpr2 receptor. Then, we developed a model of intra-cerebro-ventricular administration of RvD1 and DHA followed by peripheral LPS challenge. Our results showed that DHA decrease inflammation in the hippocampus but RvD1 only inhibit COX-2 in these conditions that need to be further investigated to evaluate by which mechanism DHA-derived RvD1 acts.
To conclude, we demonstrate that oxilipins may play a role in the regulation of neuroinflammation. Further investigations are required to complete these promising results.