Poster présenté par Leslie Couëdelo et Carole Vaysse lors du 12ème Congrès Euro Fed Lipid, 14-17 septembre 2014 à Montpellier
Leslie Couëdelo (1), Claude Billeaud (2), Delphine Lamireau (4), Paul Perez(3), Wafae Belcadi (2), Fabienne Nacka (2), Laurence Fonseca (1), Nicole Combe (1), Jean-Charles Picaud (5), Carole Vaysse (1)neurodegenerative diseases and cancer prevention.
1) ITERG, Bordeaux, France 2) CHU de Bordeaux - CIC 005 Pédiatrie, Bordeaux, France 3) USMR Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France 4) Lactarium Bordeaux-Marmande France, 5) Association des lactarium de France (ADLF)
For several years, there has been a growing body of evidence on the involvement of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-3, on cardiovascular, inflammatory,
These studies are a carrier for nutritional advices which have been recently reassessed (2010). These latter preconize to increase PUFA n-3 intakes by the consumption of, linolenic oils (such as rapeseed oil : source of ALA) and of oily fishes (sources of EPA and DHA). Besides breast milk is found to be an excellent marker of PUFA n-3 consumption.
Thus we conducted between 2000 and 2014, three monitoring studies of breast milk composition on several French regions. Findings obtained in 2000, revealed an important imbalance of the n-6/n-3 ratio (r = 24) compared to the dietary recommendations (ANSES ; r = 5), resulting of a low ALA intake.
Studies conducted in 2007 and 2014 demonstrated modifications of n-3 and n-6 contents of breast milk. In particular since 2000 and over 2014, it has been observed that ALA consumption increased by 46 % (whose 6% since 2007) and to a lesser extent, in DHA (13% including 8 % since 2007). Moreover linoleic acid intake decreased by over 22% and particularly by 17% from 2000 to 2007.
The variation of the two n-6 and n-3 precursors induced a 50% decrease of the n-6/n-3 ratio (r = 24 in 2000 vs r = 12 in 2014), certainly reflecting the change in the behavior of French dietary habits and in accordance with the nutritional recommendations.
Indeed lipid consumption has evolved over the last decades in favor of rapeseed oil (three times higher in 2012 than in 2001) which currently represents 46% of the French consumption of vegetable oils, and of "health" margarine rich in ALA which represents almost 63 % of French margarines.
Finally, the reduction of 50% of trans fatty acid levels (TFA) initiated in 2007 is still evolving until 2014 and could be explained by an improvement, in France, of the composition of the margarine with a very low level of TFA.