Publication parue dans The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry ( décembre 2018)
Auteurs : M. Milard, A. Penhoat, A. Durand, C. Buisson, E. Loizon, E. Meuginer, K. Bertrand, F. Joffre, D. Cheillan, L. Garnier, S. Viel, F. Laugerette, M.C. Michalski
TITRE : Acute effects of milk polar lipids on intestinal tight junction expression: Towards an impact of sphingomyelin through the regulation of IL-8 secretion?
Abstract: Milk polar lipids (MPL) are specifically rich in milk sphingomyelin (MSM) which represents 24% of MPL. Beneficial effects of MPL or MSM have been reported on lipid metabolism, but information on gut physiology is scarce. Here we assessed whether MPL and MSM can impact tight junction expression. Human epithelial intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells were incubated with mixed lipid micelles devoid of MSM (Control) or with 0.2 or 0.4 mM of MSM via pure MSM or via total MPL. C57Bl/6 mice received 5 or 10 mg of MSM via MSM or via MPL (oral gavage); small intestinal segments were collected after 4 h. Impacts on tight junction and cytokine expressions were assessed by qPCR; IL-8 and IL-8 murine homologs (Cxcl1, Cxcl2) were analyzed.
In vitro, MSM increased tight junction expression (Occludin, ZO-1) vs Control, unlike MPL. However, no differences were observed in permeability assays (FITC-dextran, Lucifer yellow). MSM increased the secretion and gene expression of IL-8 but not of other inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, cell incubation with IL-8 induced an overexpression of tight junction proteins. In mice, mRNA level of Cxcl1 and Cxcl2 in the ileum were increased after gavage with MSM vs NaCl but not with MPL. Altogether, these results suggest a specific action of MSM on intestinal tight junction expression, possibly mediated by IL-8. Our study provides clues to shed light on the beneficial effects of MPL on intestinal functions and supports the need for further mechanistic exploration of the direct vs indirect effects of MSM and IL-8 on the gut barrier.