Publication parue dans Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
( janvier 2019)
Auteurs : M. Milard, F. Laugerette, A. Durand, C. Buisson, E. Meugnier, E. Loizon, , C. Louche-Pelissier, V. Sauvinet, L. Garnier, S. Viel, K. Bertrand, F. Joffre, D. Cheillan, L. Humbert, D. Rainteau, P. Plaisancié, L.B. Bindels, A.M. Neyrinck, N.M. Delzenne, M.C. Michalski
TITRE : Milk Polar Lipids in a High‐Fat Diet Can Prevent Body Weight Gain: Modulated Abundance of Gut Bacteria in Relation with Fecal Loss of Specific Fatty Acids
Scope: Enhanced adiposity and metabolic inflammation are major features of obesity associated with altered gut microbiota and intestinal barrier. We investigated in mice fed a mixed high‐fat (HF) diet how these metabolic outcomes could be impacted by milk polar lipids (MPL), naturally containing 25% of sphingomyelin.
Methods and results: Male C57Bl/6 mice received for 8 weeks a HF‐diet devoid of MPL (21% fat, mainly palm oil, in chow), or supplemented with 1.1% or 1.6% of MPL (HF‐MPL1; HF‐MPL2) via a total‐lipid extract from butterserum concentrate. HF‐MPL2 mice gained less weight vs HF (p < 0.01). Diets did not impact plasma markers of inflammation but in the liver HF‐MPL2 tended to decrease hepatic gene expression of macrophage marker F4/80 vs HF‐MPL1 (p = 0.06). Colonic crypt depth was greatest in HF‐MPL2 (p < 0.05). In caecal microbiota, HF‐MPL1 increased Bifidobacterium animalis, vs HF (p < 0.05). HF‐MPL2 decreased Lactobacillus reuteri (p < 0.05), which correlated negatively with the fecal loss of milk sphingomyelin‐specific fatty acids (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: In mice fed a mixed HF diet, MPL can limit HF‐induced body weight gain and modulate gut physiology and the abundance of beneficial bacteria of the microbiota. This supports further exploration of how residual unabsorbed lipids reaching the colon could impact HF‐induced metabolic disorders.